You are prohibited from using or uploading content you accessed through this website into external applications, bots, software, or websites, including those using artificial intelligence technologies and infrastructure, including deep learning, machine learning and large language models and generative AI.
No AccessJournal of UrologyAdult Urology1 Feb 2017

Vitamin D Intake and the Risk of Incident Kidney Stones

    View All Author Information


    Kidney stones are a common and painful condition. Longitudinal prospective studies on the association between the intake of vitamin D and the risk of incident kidney stones are lacking.

    Materials and Methods:

    We performed a prospective analysis of 193,551 participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Nurses’ Health Study I and II. Participants were divided into categories of total (less than 100, 100 to 199, 200 to 399, 400 to 599, 600 to 999, 1,000 IU per day or greater) and supplemental (none, less than 400, 400 to 599, 600 to 999, 1,000 IU per day or greater) vitamin D intake. During a followup of 3,316,846 person-years there were 6,576 incident kidney stone events. Cox proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for age, body mass index, comorbidities, use of medications and intake of other nutrients.


    After multivariate adjustment there was no statistically significant association between vitamin D intake and risk of stones in the HPFS (HR for 1,000 or greater vs less than 100 IU per day 1.08, 95% CI 0.80, 1.47, p for trend = 0.92) and the NHS I (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.73, 1.35, p for trend = 0.70), whereas there was a suggestion of a higher risk in the NHS II (HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.94, 1.48, p for trend = 0.02). Similar results were found for supplemental vitamin D intake.


    Vitamin D intake in typical amounts was not statistically associated with risk of kidney stone formation, although higher risk with higher doses than those studied here cannot be excluded.


    • 1 : Prevalence of kidney stones in the United States. Eur Urol2012; 62: 160. Google Scholar
    • 2 : 24-h uric acid excretion and the risk of kidney stones. Kidney Int2008; 73: 489. Google Scholar
    • 3 : Evidence for disordered control of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production in absorptive hypercalciuria. N Engl J Med1984; 311: 73. Google Scholar
    • 4 : An assessment of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D3, estradiol and testosterone in men with active calcium stone disease and evaluation of its biochemical risk factors. Urol Res2011; 39: 1. Google Scholar
    • 5 : Calcium and phosphorus regulatory hormones and risk of incident symptomatic kidney stones. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol2015; 10: 667. Google Scholar
    • 6 : Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. N Engl J Med2006; 354: 669. Google Scholar
    • 7 : Effect of vitamin D repletion on urinary calcium excretion among kidney stone formers. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol2012; 7: 829. Google Scholar
    • 8 : Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis and hypovitaminosis D: a case-control study. Urology2016; 87: 40. Google Scholar
    • 9 : Low bone mass in idiopathic renal stone formers: magnitude and significance. J Bone Miner Res1994; 9: 1525. Google Scholar
    • 10 : Association of vitamin D status with arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk: a Mendelian randomisation study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol2014; 2: 719. Google Scholar
    • 11 : Vitamin D and calcium intake in relation to type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care2006; 29: 650. Google Scholar
    • 12 : Vitamin D concentration, obesity, and risk of diabetes: a Mendelian randomisation study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol2014; 2: 298. Google Scholar
    • 13 : 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of myocardial infarction in men: a prospective study. Arch Intern Med2008; 168: 1174. Google Scholar
    • 14 : Vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease: data from the Heart and Soul Study. Am J Epidemiol2014; 179: 1279. Google Scholar
    • 15 : Nephrolithiasis and risk of hypertension. Am J Hypertens1998; 11: 46. Google Scholar
    • 16 : Nephrolithiasis and risk of hypertension in women. Am J Kidney Dis1998; 32: 802. Google Scholar
    • 17 : Diabetes mellitus and the risk of nephrolithiasis. Kidney Int2005; 68: 1230. Google Scholar
    • 18 : History of kidney stones and the risk of coronary heart disease. JAMA2013; 310: 408. Google Scholar
    • 19 : Dietary factors and the risk of incident kidney stones in men: new insights after 14 years of follow-up. J Am Soc Nephrol2004; 15: 3225. Google Scholar
    • 20 : 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in the range of 20 to 100 ng/mL and incidence of kidney stones. Am J Public Health2014; 104: 1783. Google Scholar
    • 21 : Estimation of the oxalate content of foods and daily oxalate intake. Kidney Int2000; 57: 1662. Google Scholar
    • 22 : Reproducibility and validity of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Am J Epidemiol1985; 122: 51. Google Scholar
    • 23 : Reproducibility and validity of an expanded self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire among male health professionals. Am J Epidemiol1992; 135: 1114. Google Scholar
    • 24 : DASH-style diet associates with reduced risk for kidney stones. J Am Soc Nephrol2009; 20: 2253. Google Scholar
    • 25 : All-source basal vitamin D inputs are greater than previously thought and cutaneous inputs are smaller. J Nutr2013; 143: 571. Google Scholar
    • 26 : Vitamin D intake to attain a desired serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. Am J Clin Nutr2008; 87: 1952. Google Scholar
    • 27 : Efficacy and safety of vitamin D3 intake exceeding the lowest observed adverse effect level. Am J Clin Nutr2001; 73: 288. Google Scholar
    • 28 : Calcium and bone homeostasis in heterozygous carriers of CYP24A1 mutations: a cross-sectional study. Bone2015; 81: 89. Google Scholar