No AccessJournal of UrologyPediatric Urology1 May 2020

Association of Maternal First Trimester Serum Levels of Free Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Hypospadias: A Population Based Study

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Human chorionic gonadotropin stimulates fetal testosterone production and contributes to normal development of male genitalia. Using population based data we hypothesized that differences in maternal free beta human chorionic gonadotropin may be associated with hypospadias.

Materials and Methods:

Data were obtained from the Paris Registry of Congenital Malformations (REMAPAR) (2011 to 2016). The initial study population included 3,172 pregnant women who gave birth to a singleton live born male infant with a congenital malformation. After exclusion of cases with unknown beta human chorionic gonadotropin and those with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities, the study population included 194 boys with isolated hypospadias and 1,075 controls. For cases with operative notes (125) we obtained data on type (proximal/distal) of hypospadias. Using quantile regression we compared median values of multiple of median beta human chorionic gonadotropin measured for first trimester Down syndrome screening (10th to 13th gestational weeks) for overall as well as by type of hypospadias vs controls. We also considered possible effects of placental dysfunction (maternal age, intrauterine growth retardation and preterm births) as potential confounding factors.


Overall the median beta human chorionic gonadotropin multiple of median was comparable for women who had an infant with hypospadias vs controls (0.99 vs 0.95, p=0.3). However, proximal hypospadias was associated with a statistically significant higher median multiple of median than distal hypospadias or unspecified (1.49 vs 0.92 vs 1.05, p=0.02). The estimates were comparable after adjustment for placental dysfunction.


Our findings support the hypothesis that an alteration in maternal beta human chorionic gonadotropin levels is associated with hypospadias. However, this association appears to be limited to proximal hypospadias.


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Supported by INSERM (Paris, France) and Santé Publique France (Saint-Maurice, France).

No direct or indirect commercial, personal, academic, political religious or ethical incentive is associated with publishing this article.