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Purpose:

Numerous factors have been postulated to increase success rates for dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection for vesicoureteral reflux. Ureteral hydrodistention combined with intraureteral injection reportedly improves injection success rates. We combined the results of 5 pediatric urologists to evaluate the efficacy of this technique compared to that of subtrigonal-only injection in relation to other factors.

Materials and Methods:

Patients with primary vesicoureteral reflux undergoing dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection from April 2002 to December 2005 at 2 institutions were eligible. Only patients with primary vesicoureteral reflux were included in the study. Injection success was defined as the complete absence of reflux on followup voiding cystourethrogram or radionuclide cystogram. Predictors of a successful outcome were analyzed statistically with logistic regression. Factors included in our analysis were gender, age, vesicoureteral reflux grade, dysfunctional voiding, amount of injected dextranomer/hyaluronic acid, injection technique (intraureteral vs subureteral) and surgeon.

Results:

A total of 301 patients (453 ureters) with a median age of 5.5 years met inclusion criteria, of whom 199 (66%) were cured at 3 months of followup. Of the patients 145 (48%) underwent subureteral injection and 156 (52%) underwent ureteral hydrodistention combined with intraureteral injection. On multivariate analysis only vesicoureteral reflux grade (p <0.001) and surgeon (p = 0.01) were significantly predictive of injection success. There was a trend toward significance with ureteral hydrodistention combined with intraureteral injection (p = 0.056).

Conclusions:

In our multivariate model only vesicoureteral reflux grade and surgeon were independently predictive of injection success in patients with primary, uncomplicated vesicoureteral reflux. There was a trend toward improved results with ureteral hydrodistention combined with intraureteral injection, although this did not achieve statistical significance.

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Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester and Division of Urology, Pediatric Surgical Associates (YR, JJW, DRV), Minneapolis, Minnesota

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