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No AccessJournal of UrologyPediatric urology1 Jun 2006

Validity and Reliability of Parental Report of Frequency, Severity and Risk Factors of Urinary Tract Infection and Urinary Incontinence in Children

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    We describe the validity and reliability of a questionnaire designed to determine frequency, severity and risk factors of urinary tract infection and daytime urinary incontinence in primary school-age children.

    Materials and Methods:

    Based on published validated questionnaires and advice from content experts, a questionnaire was developed and piloted in children attending outpatient clinics. Construct validity for parent report of frequency and severity of daytime urinary incontinence was tested by comparison with a daily accident diary in 52 primary school children, and criterion validity of parent report for UTI was verified by comparison with the reference standard (urine culture) in 100 primary school children. Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was assessed in 106 children from primary schools.


    There was excellent agreement between the questionnaire and accident diary in severity (weighted kappa 0.94, 95% confidence intervals 0.85 to 1.03) and frequency of daytime urinary incontinence (0.88, 0.7 to 1.0). Parents reported urinary tract infection in 15% of children, compared to a positive urine culture in 8% (sensitivity 100% and specificity 68.5%). Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was excellent (mean k 0.78, range 0.61 to 1.00).


    Parents overreport UTI by about 2-fold but can recall frequency and severity of daytime urinary incontinence well during a 3-month period. The developed questionnaire is a valid tool to estimate frequency, severity and risk factors of daytime urinary incontinence and UTI in primary school children.


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