TWO CONSECUTIVE SETS OF TRANSRECTAL ULTRASOUND GUIDED SEXTANT BIOPSIES OF THE PROSTATE FOR THE DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER
We investigated the role of performing 2 consecutive sets of transrectal ultrasound guided sextant biopsies of the prostate in a single office visit as the protocol for detecting prostate cancer in men presenting for the first time with an abnormal digital rectal examination and/or elevated serum prostate specific antigen (PSA).
Materials and Methods:
A total of 137 consecutive men presenting for the first time with a clinically localized prostate nodule on digital rectal examination and/or elevated serum PSA based upon age specific reference ranges underwent 2 consecutive sets of sextant prostate biopsies under transrectal ultrasound guidance in a single office visit. The 2 sets of biopsies were processed and analyzed separately by pathologists.
Adenocarcinoma of the prostate was diagnosed in 43 of the patients (31%) undergoing biopsy. Adenocarcinoma of the prostate was diagnosed in only the second set of biopsies in 13 cases (10%). High grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia without adenocarcinoma of the prostate was observed in 18 of the first set of biopsies (15%). High grade intraepithelial neoplasia without adenocarcinoma of the prostate was the only pathological diagnosis in the second set of biopsies in 3 cases. The second set of biopsies provided important new clinical information related to prostate cancer in 20 cases (28%) and increased the number of cancers detected by 30%. In addition, 14 patients with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia who would have required a second set of biopsies were found not to have adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Prostate cancer was detected in 43, 27 and 24% of men with prostate volumes less than 30, 30 to 50 and greater than 50 cc, respectively. The percentage of prostate cancers detected only in the second set of biopsies was not significantly related to prostate size.
Two consecutive sets of transrectal ultrasound guided sextant biopsies of the prostate performed in a single office visit represent a cost-effective biopsy strategy for men presenting with an abnormal digital rectal examination and/or elevated serum PSA. The benefits include increasing the detection of adenocarcinoma of the prostate and providing the recommended second set of biopsies for high grade intraepithelial neoplasia without increased morbidity or cost.
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Departments of Urology and Pathology, New York University Medical Center, and Manhattan Veterans Administration Medical Center, New York, New York.